Methodology & Findings
A VISA is an endorsement (through a certificate or stamp in a travel document) showing a visitor is allowed to enter the country for a specific length of time and for specific activities.
VISA REQUIRED means a visa has to be obtained before departure from an embassy, an honorary consulate or another official representative.
VISA ON ARRIVAL means a visa has to be obtained on arrival in the country. This includes filling out any visa forms, paying the visa fee if applicable and receiving a visa in a travel document.
NO VISA means that there is no visa needed either before departure or on arrival, with no entry authorisation required to enter freely into the country. Entry procedures still need to be complied with – these can include filling out entry forms and receiving an entry stamp.
eVISA means an electronic visa that can be obtained before departure from an official online platform.
The higher a country’s score in the Index, the more visa- open it is and the higher it ranks. Scores range from 0 – 1 (highest).
- Visa required
- Visa on arrival
- No visa
Each category is weighted based on its degree of openness. For example, a ‘no visa’ result is weighted by 1 (high openness), ‘visa on arrival’ is weighted by 0.8 and a ‘visa required’ by 0.
Index category indicators based on 54 African countries:*
- Number of countries from whom citizens a visa is required as a % of total number of countries
- Number of countries whose citizens can get a visa on arrival as a % of total number of countries
- Number of countries from whose citizens no visa is required as a % of total number of countries
A country’s score is calculated by adding the results from all three indicators:
[ (% of visa required x 0) + (% of visa on arrival x 0.8) + (% of no visa x 1) ] / 100 = country visa openness score.
*All African Union member countries except Western Sahara, which was not ranked due to a lack of available information.